Income Statement is the official publication of U.S. corporate and private information. The income statement provides the revenues, disbursements, income, and result of a company. It is just one component of a complete financial statement, the other two documents are the balance statement of earnings. It summarizes the operations of a company during a year and gives an accurate picture of its income. It is very important to determine the performance of your company and this document provides a benchmark from which to do that.
An income statement covers a period that begins with the receipt of revenues and ends with the sale or disposition of a security instrument. The period may be six months beginning with the last day of the fiscal year and ending with the first day of the next fiscal year. For companies, income statements are also required to provide information regarding quarterly and yearly results. It also provides information with respect to a company’s inventory levels, working capital, retained earnings, free cash, and other ratios of value. Other ratios of value include equity to net worth, EBIT, cost of goods sold, gross margin, and other ratios of market price to book value. Income statements are prepared in a similar format to the balance sheets.
A company’s income statement shows the gross profits and net profits, less any charge-offs and dividends. It also shows the gross margin, which is the difference between revenues realized for goods sold and costs incurred to sell those goods. The gross margin percentage is determined by dividing the gross profits by the selling price to determine the net income. The profitability of a corporation is calculated by adding the gross margin percentage to the gross profits and then dividing the difference between revenues and expenses by the total revenues received. The purpose of profitability is to show the extent to which the company exceeds its investment in the assets used to conduct business.
A profit and loss statement shows the income from revenues, including the net income from sources, less the cash paid to people and companies. The income statement takes into account the effect of interest and dividends on cash received during a period of time and records whether or not the cash flow from the operations exceeds the cash paid out during that period. The effect of operating expenses and the net revenues earned during a time period is determined by a balance sheet that reports the income from the activities during that period. The difference between revenues and expenses is the profit or loss.
Income statements are prepared for different periods depending on the type of reporting used. Most companies report their earnings for the year ended on the last day of the reporting period, called the last day of the reporting period. There are two types of reporting periods used, namely, the reporting period end and the ending report period. The income statements for the year ended December 31, also referred to as the income statement, include the following information: gross profit, net profit, income taxes paid, net income not reported in the statement, assets held by the company that were acquired and liabilities listed at the end of the reporting period. All of the above mentioned items are ancillary items.
Net income statements show the net income from the carrying and disbursing of the capital stock and other assets and liabilities as well as revenues earned. This information is provided on a net basis. For example, if a company has $100 million in assets and $10 million in liabilities, its net worth would be the excess of the value of assets over the value of liabilities. Net income statements for the year ended June 30, also referred to as the NOL, include the following information: gross profit, net profit, income taxes paid, net income not reported in the statement, assets owned by the company that were acquired and liabilities listed at the end of the year.
Gains and losses are measured by means of gross and net profits. Net profits are the difference between revenues earned and cash received. A gain is considered to be either a direct gain or an implied gain. A direct gain is realized when a customer purchases something from you have an obligation to pay the retail price to the customer in cash. An implied gain is when an entity makes a payment based on the expected future income stream from long-term assets or liabilities.
Income statements are prepared for a single reporting period generally one year. Reporting periods can be annual, quarterly or half-year. Generally, there is a long-term trend in the income statement results, which are called a running balance. A running balance is a measure of the total revenues from the beginning of the reporting period to the end of the same year, inclusive of all expenses. This includes only the direct costs of goods sold or services rendered to customers.